Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (2024)

×

Log in Upload File

  • Most Popular
  • Study
  • Business
  • Design
  • Technology
  • Travel
  • Explore all categories
  • Home
  • Documents
  • Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary:

33

Life Application Bible Commentary

Upload: nguyentram

Post on 31-Jan-2018

244 views

Category:

Documents


2 download

Report

  • Download
Facebook Twitter E-Mail LinkedIn Pinterest

TRANSCRIPT

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (3)

Life Application Bible Commentary

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (4)

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (5)

lifeHEBREWS

Application®

Bible Commentary

Bruce B. Barton, D.Min.Dave Veerman, M.Div.Linda K. Taylor

SERIES EDITOR: Grant Osborne, Ph.D.EDITOR: Philip Comfort, Ph.D.

TYNDALE HOUSE PUBLISHERS, INC. CAROL STREAM, ILLINOIS

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (6)

Visit Tyndale’s exciting Web site at www.tyndale.comHebrewsCopyright © 1997 by The Livingstone Corporation. All rights reserved.Contributing Editors: James C. Galvin, Ed.D., and Ronald A. BeersCover photograph of bridge and path copyright © by Alyn Stafford / iStockphoto. Allrights reserved.Cover photographs of woman with a laptop and man holding a pen copyright © byDan Wilton / iStockphoto. All rights reserved.Cover photo of man reading copyright © by Ronnie Comeau / iStockphoto. All rightsreserved.Scripture quotations marked NIV are taken from the Holy Bible, New InternationalVersion®. NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Usedby permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved.Scripture quotations marked NKJV are taken from the New King James Version.Copyright © 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rightsreserved.Scripture quotations marked NRSV are taken from the New Revised StandardVersion of the Bible, copyright © 1989, Division of Christian Education of the NationalCouncil of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used bypermission. All rights reserved.(No citation is given for Scripture text that is exactly the same wording in all threeversions—NIV, NKJV, and NRSV.)Scripture quotations marked KJV are taken from the Holy Bible, King James Version.Scripture quotations marked NLT are taken from the Holy Bible, New LivingTranslation, copyright © 1996. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.,Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.TYNDALE, Life Application, New Living Translation, NLT, and Tyndale’s quill logo areregistered trademarks of Tyndale House, Publishers, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataBarton, Bruce B.

Hebrews / Bruce B. Barton, Dave R. Veerman, Linda K. Taylor ; editor,Philip W. Comfort.

p. cm. — (Life application Bible commentary)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-8423-2856-2 (pbk. : alk. paper)1. Bible. N.T. Hebrews—Commentaries. I. Veerman, David. II. Taylor,

Linda K. III. Comfort, Philip Wesley. IV. Title. V. Series.BS2775.3.B37 1997227′.87077—dc21 96-53647

Printed in the United States of America12 11 10 09 0814 13 12 11 10

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (7)

CONTENTSix Foreword

xi Introduction

xii Author

xv Date

xvi Audience

xvii Destination

xviii Occasion and Purpose

xix Message

xxiii Vital Statistics

xxiii Outline

1 Hebrews 1

15 Hebrews 2

31 Hebrews 3

47 Hebrews 4:1–5:10

71 Hebrews 5:11–6:20

91 Hebrews 7

111 Hebrews 8

125 Hebrews 9

147 Hebrews 10

175 Hebrews 11

203 Hebrews 12

229 Hebrews 13

249 Bibliography

251 Index

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (8)

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (9)

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (10)

FOREWORDThe Life Application Bible Commentary series provides verse-by-verse explanation, background, and application for everyverse in the New Testament. In addition, it gives personal help,teaching notes, and sermon ideas that will address needs, answerquestions, and provide insight for applying the word of God to lifetoday. The content is highlighted so that particular verses andphrases are easy to find.

Each volume contains three sections: introduction, commen-tary, and reference. The introduction includes an overview ofthe book, the book’s historical context, a time line, cultural back-ground information, major themes, an overview map, and anexplanation about the author and audience.

The commentary section includes running commentary on theBible text with reference to several modern versions, especiallythe New International Version, the New Revised StandardVersion, and the New Living Translation, accompanied by lifeapplications interspersed throughout. Additional elements includecharts, diagrams, maps, and illustrations. There are also insightfulquotes from church leaders and theologians such as John Calvin,Martin Luther, John Wesley, and A. W. Tozer. These features aredesigned to help you quickly grasp the biblical information and beprepared to communicate it to others. The reference sectionincludes an index and a bibliography.

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (11)

INTRODUCTIONFaced with the choice of something good or something obviouslybad, only a foolish or misguided person would choose “bad.”Good should win every time.

At the next level, however, choices become more difficult—deciding between good and better. Again in this case, the logicalchoice would seem to be “better,” but the choice is not asclear-cut as in the former situation: The differences between thetwo options may seem insignificant, the reasons for choosingwhat purports to be “better” may be unconvincing, and stayingwith the familiar “good” may feel comfortable and convenient.Thus, faced with keeping the good or moving up to better, manypeople stick with what they have, because, after all, it’s not “bad.”

The next choice is even more difficult—deciding between betterand best. Again, the obvious choice should be “best” every time,but many miss what is best and settle, instead, for “better” or sim-ply “good.” For them it is better to stay with what they know.

The writer of the letter to the Hebrews had to convince the read-ers to settle for nothing less than God’s very best for their lives.Jews were familiar with God’s goodness and perfection. After all,they were his chosen people, and through them God had communi-cated his love and plan for the world. They were the recipients ofthe covenant, the law, the tabernacle, and profound religious ritu-als, and they had been blessed with prophets proclaiming God’smessages and priests doing God’s work. Judaism was God’s way,and it was good.

But Jesus, the Christ, had come, fulfilling the law, making theperfect sacrifice, and initiating the new covenant. Christ was abetter prophet, a better priest, and a better sacrifice. In fact, hewas the ultimate, the best. Many Jews had embraced this newway, expressing faith in Christ (“Messiah”) as Savior and Lord.Yet the familiar, good Judaism continued to draw them back.Some returned to the old way, and others attempted to combinethe old with the new, forming a hybrid of Judaism and Christian-ity. And so they missed God’s best.

Hebrews is a masterful document written to Jews who wereevaluating Jesus or who were struggling with the Christian faith.The message of Hebrews is that Jesus is better, Christianity is

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (12)

superior, and Christ is supreme and completely sufficient forsalvation.

As you read Hebrews, catch the profound message of thisimportant book. Judaism may not be calling you back, but manyother gods and belief systems clamor for attention and push forallegiance. Regardless of their claims and promises, know thatonly Jesus is the truth, and only he brings life. Jesus is the best,the only way (John 14:6). Don’t settle for anything less!

AUTHORThe authorship of Hebrews has been in doubt since its publica-tion. In fact, none of the early writers who refer to this bookmention its author. And no one since early times has been ableto identify the author.

Hebrews names no one as author. This is unusual for a letter,especially if Paul had written it. (His letters usually bear his nameand personal greetings to the readers.) In fact, the only ancienttitle for this book is simply “To Hebrews,” and that may not havebeen on the original, since all of the manuscripts with that titledate after the first century A.D., the original having been writtenin about A.D. 60.

The inclusion of Hebrews into the New Testament canon camefrom the Eastern church as early as A.D. 185, mainly because of thetraditional belief that Paul had written it. Clement of Alexandriadescribed his teacher’s (Pantaenus’s) explanation for why Paul didnot use his own name in this letter. Pantaenus surmised that Paulrefrained from mentioning his name out of reverence to the Lord,who himself had been their Apostle (3:1). Clement accepted thisexplanation and proposed that the original had been written in He-brew (Aramaic) and Luke had translated it into Greek. But this isconjecture.

What, then, do we know about the author for certain? Clearlythe author was an early Christian because Hebrews was used byClement of Rome in A.D. 95 (for example, 1 Clement 17; 36) andprobably by Polycarp (for example, To the Philippians 6.12) andHermas (for example, Visions 2.3.2; 3.7.2; Similitudes 9.13.7).From the content of the letter we learn several other things:

� The author was a teacher and a second-generation Christian:“This salvation, which was first announced by the Lord, wasconfirmed to us by those who heard him” (2:3b NIV).

� The writer had thought long and hard about a Christianinterpretation of the Old Testament.

HEBREWS xii

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (13)

� The author was probably a Greek-speaking Jew, familiar withthe Old Testament Scriptures and with the religious ideas of theJews. The author claims to share the inheritance of their sacredhistory, traditions, and institutions (1:1) and writes of them withintimate knowledge and enthusiasm.

� The author seems to have known the Old Testament only inthe Septuagint (ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament),which is followed even where it deviates from the Hebrew.

� The fact that Hebrews contains teachings that are “Pauline”along with the mention of Timothy in 13:23 seems to suggestthat the author knew Paul or associated with those who wereclose to him.

� The author used Greek with a purity of style and strongvocabulary, and the style is unlike any other New Testamentdocument. However, the fundamental concepts of Hebrewscorrespond fully with the writings of Paul and John.

Beyond this limited profile, the letter gives few authorship clues.A number of possible authors who fit the profile have been pro-posed over the years:

Paul. As mentioned, this has been the traditional view in manycircles. For example, the introduction to the Scofield ReferenceBible (original copyright 1909; copyright renewed in 1937 and1945) reads, “The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews.”Hebrews 13:23 and 2 Peter 3:15 are given as support for thisview. Some have proposed that the epistle may actually havebeen a transcribed sermon by Paul; this, it is thought, wouldaccount for the differences in style with his other letters. Paulas the author has also been the official Roman Catholic viewsince the Council of Trent (A.D. 1545–1563).

The style of Hebrews, however, differs greatly from Paul’sletters. For example, it includes none of Paul’s Hebraisms, noneof his long involved sentences, none of his rapid changes inthought, and none of his usual way of introducing Old Testa-ment quotations. Also, Hebrews contains no personal allusions(a common practice of Paul), and the author aligns with thosewho have a secondhand knowledge of the Lord (2:3), somethingthat Paul strongly denied (1 Corinthians 9:1; Galatians 1:12). Inaddition, the style of the Greek in this letter is the most elegantand pure in the New Testament, closer to Luke’s writing andunlike any of Paul’s letters.

Perhaps the strongest argument against Pauline authorship isthe considerable theological difference between Hebrews andPaul’s writings. Hebrews highlights the high priesthood of Christ,

xiii HEBREWS

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (14)

a concept totally absent from Paul’s epistles. And many of Paul’smost prominent teachings are absent in Hebrews. These include:union with Christ, justification by faith, the opposition of faithand works, and the tension between flesh and spirit.

The content of Hebrews does not contradict what Paul haswritten. In fact, Hebrews and Paul’s writings hold many conceptsand teachings in common. This led Origen to conclude that muchof the contents of Hebrews was Pauline.

Barnabas. Paul’s friend and companion on his first missionarytrip (see Acts 9:27; 11:22-26; 12:25; 13:1–14:28; 15:1-41),Barnabas, “Son of Encouragement,” was a Levite (Acts 4:36)and thoroughly familiar with the priestly services. Because ofthese Levite connections (Hebrews contains much Leviticalritual), Tertullian (c. A.D. 160–230) and scholars of North Africasupposed Barnabas to be the author. When introducing a quota-tion from Hebrews 6:1, 4-6, Tertullian wrote: “There is also anEpistle to the Hebrews under the name of Barnabas . . . and theEpistle of Barnabas is more generally received among thechurches than that apocryphal ‘Shepherd’ of adulterers” (Depudicitia 20). Despite this strong endorsem*nt, however, thereis no other evidence or ancient support for Barnabas as author.

Apollos. This charismatic preacher is mentioned from time to timein the New Testament (see Acts 18:24-28; 19:1; 1 Corinthians1:12; 3:4-6; 4:1, 6; 16:12; Titus 3:13), but we know very littleabout him. Apollos was a Jew, a native of Alexandria, well edu-cated, and well versed in Scripture (Acts 18:24). It was also said ofApollos that “he spoke with great fervor and taught about Jesus ac-curately” and that “he vigorously refuted the Jews in public debate,proving from the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ” (Acts 18:25,28 NIV). Apollos knew Timothy and had been instructed by Paul,indirectly, through Priscilla and Aquila (Acts 18:25-26).

Luther proposed Apollos as the author, and many modern schol-ars lean in that direction because the epistle displays the kind ofallegorical interpretations that were prominent in Alexandria.

Luke. Clement of Alexandria and Origen believed that Luketranslated Paul’s original writing or speaking. Parts of Hebrewsare similar to the style and content of Acts, especially Stephen’sspeech (Acts 7:1-53), but that is the only proposed connectionbetween Hebrews and Luke. This theory is quite speculative.

Others. Over the years, many other writers have been proposed.Each one has a bit of support: Silvanus (Silas), a member of bothPaul’s and Peter’s circles and possibly the coauthor or secretary

HEBREWS xiv

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (15)

VITAL STATISTICSPurpose: To present the superiority of Christ over Judaism.Author: Unknown. Paul, Luke, Barnabas, Apollos, Silas,

Priscilla, and others have been suggested because the nameof the author is not given in the biblical text itself. Whoeverit was speaks of Timothy as a “brother” (13:23).

To whom written: Hebrew Christians (perhapssecond-generation Christians, see 2:3) who may have beenconsidering a return to Judaism, perhaps because ofimmaturity stemming from a lack of understanding of biblicaltruths; and all believers in Christ.

Date written: Probably before the destruction of the temple inJerusalem in A.D. 70, because the religious sacrifices andceremonies are referred to in the book, but no mention is madeof the temple’s destruction.

Setting: These Jewish Christians were probably undergoingfierce persecution, socially and physically, both from Jewsand from Romans. Christ had not returned to establish hiskingdom, and the people needed to be reassured thatChristianity was true and that Jesus was indeed the Messiah.

Key verse: “The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exactrepresentation of his being, sustaining all things by hispowerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, hesat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven” (1:3 NIV).

Key people: Old Testament men and women of faith (chapter 11).Special features: Although Hebrews is called a “letter” (13:22),

it has the form and the content of a sermon.

OUTLINEII. THE SUPERIORITY OF CHRIST (1:1–10:18)

A. Christ is greater than the angelsB. Christ is greater than MosesC. Christ is greater than the Old Testament priesthoodD. The new covenant is greater than the old

II. THE SUPERIORITY OF FAITH (10:19–13:25)

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (16)

HEBREWS1JESUS CHRIST IS GOD’S SON / 1:1-3

Hebrews tells us that God spoke through many prophets at manytimes and in various ways. But all the messages, through thevariety of God’s spokespersons, simply set the stage for theunveiling of God’s Son, who is the “radiance of God’s glory”(1:3 NIV).

The relationship between Christianity and Judaism became acritical issue in the early church. Hebrews 1:1–10:18 presents aseries of sections showing how Christ is superior to key aspectsof Judaism. The book of Hebrews carefully explains how Christis superior to angels (who gave the Old Testament law), Moses,and high priests. The new covenant is shown to be far superiorto the old. In chapter 1, Christ is presented as the ultimate andsuperior revelation of God. This can greatly encourage us andhelp us avoid drifting away from our faith in Christ.

1:1-2 In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophetsat many times and in various ways, but in these last days hehas spoken to us by his Son.NIV The writer divides history intotwo segments or ages: before Christ and after Christ. He calls thetime before Christ the past. During that time, God used prophetsto reveal his message to the people. These messages are recordedin the Old Testament (because they were part of the “old cov-enant”). But Jesus initiated a new era (a “new covenant”) betweenGod and people. The author describes this new era as these lastdays. Translators of the Septuagint (the Greek translation of theHebrew Old Testament) used this phrase, “last days,” to describethe messianic era. The Jews of Jesus’ day believed that theMessiah would usher in God’s kingdom. They were hoping forpolitical and military power that would free them from Romanrule and bring back the days of glory under David and Solomon.They believed that the Messiah would bring peace to the world.The writer of Hebrews reported that Jesus Christ, the Messiah,initiated this new, long-awaited age. But Jesus brought spiritualpeace and a spiritual kingdom. Jesus, the Messiah, has alreadybegun his kingdom on earth in the hearts of his followers.

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (17)

In the past, God spoke through the forefathers—the readers’Jewish ancestors, the patriarchs, and all the people who livedbefore Christ who had put their faith in the one true God. Theprophets include special spokespersons for God who wrote manyOld Testament books, as well as key people who did not write(such as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob). These prophets revealedwhat they learned about God. Second Peter 1:20-21 explains thatbelievers today can trust the prophets’ words: “First of all youmust understand this, that no prophecy of scripture is a matterof one’s own interpretation, because no prophecy ever came byhuman will, but men and women moved by the Holy Spirit spokefrom God” (NRSV). God used these prophets as his mouthpieceto deliver his message.

The original Jewish readers of the book would have remem-bered that God had used many approaches to send his messagesat many times and in various ways to people during Old Testa-ment times. God had spoken to Isaiah in visions (Isaiah 6), toJacob in a dream (Genesis 28:10-22), and to Abraham and Mosespersonally (Genesis 18; Exodus 31:18). God had taught Jeremiahthrough object lessons (Jeremiah 13) and had taught the peoplethrough a prophet’s marriage (Hosea 1–3). Elsewhere, God hadrevealed his direction to the people through a pillar of cloud anda pillar of fire (Exodus 13:21) and had guided them in decisionmaking through the Urim and Thummim (see Exodus 28:30;Numbers 27:21).

The Jews who lived during the time of Christ would not find itdifficult to believe that God was still revealing his will; however,many could not believe that God would speak by his Son. Thesame God who spoke through the forefathers had now spokenthrough Christ. Thus, there is continuity between old and newtimes. In the Old Testament, the revelation of God’s nature wasintermittent. It created an expectation that God was still goingto reveal himself more fully. The prophets spoke of the comingMessiah and his kingdom; Jesus is that Messiah and he initiatedGod’s kingdom. The Jews accepted the Old Testament, but mostrejected Jesus as the long-awaited Messiah.

The recipients of this letter were Jewish Christians. Theywere well versed in Scripture and had professed faith in Christ.Through doubt, persecution, or false teaching, however, manywere in danger of giving up their Christian faith and returning toJudaism. This letter to the Hebrews shows that going back to aninferior system would be foolish. Jesus Christ not only fulfillsthe promises and prophecies of the Old Testament, but he also isbetter than everything in the Jewish system. Jesus completed andfulfilled the message that was originally brought by the prophets

HEBREWS 1:1-2 2

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (18)

and forefathers. When we know Christ, we have all we need to besaved from our sin and to have a perfect relationship with God.Jesus is not just another prophet; he is the perfect expression ofGod. God will never need to send another divine messengerbecause Jesus faithfully revealed everything about God that weneed to know for salvation.

THE ULTIMATE AUTHORITYGod revealed himself by speaking through his Son. In our day,when tolerance is the cry from every corner, any claim forreligious authority meets stubborn resistance. Hebrews claimsthat God spoke through his Son as the complete revelation ofhimself. When Jesus was revealed in his true glory at the Trans-figuration (see Matthew 17:1-13), Moses and Elijah appearedwith him. Jews regarded Moses and Elijah as the two greatestprophets. Moses represented the law, and Elijah representedthe prophets. These two men had performed many miracles andwere great leaders. Yet, God’s voice from heaven said, “You areMy beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” (Mark 1:11 NKJV).Jesus Christ should be your highest authority for faith and dailyliving. Don’t allow any religious leader or teaching to diminish thewords of Christ.

God promised everything to the Son as an inheritance, andthrough the Son he made the universe and everything in it.NLT

The phrase “God promised everything to the Son as an inheri-tance” (literally, “heir of all things”) refers to Jesus as an heirwho will take his position as ruler of the new kingdom. Referringto Christ as the heir gives him the highest honor and position.This passage alludes to the royal Son of Psalm 2:8. In Psalm 2,the Son asks God for the nations to be given to him as an inheri-tance. Here Christ receives not only the nations, but all creation.Although God controls the world, he allows Satan to work. Satan,called the ruler of this world (John 12:31; 2 Corinthians 4:4;Ephesians 2:2), will continue his evil until the final day whenChrist will throw him into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:10).

The poetical descriptions of the Son in 1:2 and 1:3 may havecome from an early church hymn. The hymn celebrates Christas our mediator who speaks to us from God and about God.In these two verses, Hebrews presents seven affirmations ofChrist’s deity:

1. Christ as heir of all things (1:2)2. Christ as creator of the world (1:2)3. Christ as the radiance of God’s glory (1:3)4. Christ as the representation of God’s being (1:3)

3 HEBREWS 1:1-2

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (19)

5. Christ as the sustainer of the world (1:3)6. Christ as the purifier of people’s sins (1:3)7. Christ as King over all (1:3)

Jesus worked with God to create the world: through the Sonhe made the universe and everything in it (see also John 1:2;1 Corinthians 8:6; Colossians 1:15-16). Early Jewish Christiansinterpreted the role of Wisdom in Proverbs 8:22-31 as referringto Jesus’ work. Jesus was active at the beginning of time as theagent of creation, and he will act at the end of time as the heir(see Psalm 2:8; Romans 8:17; Galatians 4:7). In the end, theworld will be made perfect. Jesus will destroy all the worksof evil and will reign over the world that he created.

STRESSFUL TIMESJesus was God’s agent in creating the world: “For by Him allthings were created” (Colossians 1:16 NKJV). As followers ofChrist, we may give easy assent to this truth but deny it inpractice. We may believe that Christ knows and controls thelaws of heaven (pertaining to salvation and spiritual growth),but we may act each day as though our financial, family, ormedical problems are beyond his reach. If Jesus could createthe universe, then no part of life is out of his control. Do notexclude Jesus’ wisdom and the Bible’s guidance in your com-plex problems of life. No expert, professor, doctor, lawyer, orfinancial adviser knows more about your ultimate security andwell-being than Jesus does. Go first to God for advice. Talk tohim in prayer and listen to him in his Word. He can sustain youin times of stress. From that perspective you can evaluate allthe other wisdom and help made available to you.

1:3 The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact repre-sentation of his being.NIV The writer describes Jesus (the Son)as the radiance of God’s glory. In Greek, the word “radiance”(apaugasma) can describe a reflection of what is external or ofwhat is internal. With Jesus, both are true, for his radiance per-fectly reveals God’s glory. Underneath Jesus’ human appear-ance as a Jewish carpenter-turned-preacher was the glory ofGod. Jesus had said to one of his disciples, “Don’t you knowme, Philip, even after I have been among you such a long time?Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say,‘Show us the Father’? Don’t you believe that I am in the Father,and that the Father is in me? The words I say to you are not justmy own. Rather, it is the Father, living in me, who is doing hiswork” (John 14:9-10 NIV). Jesus does more than merely reflectGod, he is God. Therefore, he makes God’s essence and natureclear to us (John 1:18). Furthermore, Christ radiates divine

HEBREWS 1:3 4

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (20)

glory (2 Corinthians 4:4). He is not a copy, but the veryembodiment of God’s nature. He gives us “the light of theknowledge of the glory of God” (2 Corinthians 4:6).

Not only is Jesus the radiance of God’s glory, but he is also theexact representation of his being. Jesus is God himself—the veryGod who spoke in Old Testament times. The Greek word for“being” (hypostasis) means the very substance of God; the Greekword for “exact representation” (character) was used in ancienttimes to express an imprint, an image. Thus, Jesus is the visibleexpression of God’s invisible being. We get a perfect picture ofGod when we look at Christ (John 1:18). In other words, Jesusexplains God; he came to the world and portrayed God to peopleby his words and actions. No one can know God apart fromChrist because we know God by knowing Christ. God revealshimself through Jesus (see John 1:1; 2 Corinthians 4:4; Philip-pians 2:6; Colossians 1:15). The prophets could only tell God’speople what they saw and heard. Jesus was God himself—hismessage was firsthand.

He sustains the universe by the mighty power of hiscommand.NLT Christ not only created the universe, he alsosustains it (Colossians 1:17). He does this by preserving anddelivering the universe until he will inherit it (see commentary on1:1-2). Christ spoke the world into existence (Genesis 1–2), andhe supports the world with his omnipotent word (see 11:3).Christ does not physically hold up the world, as was said of themythical Atlas, but he guides the world toward its appointedfuture—the time when he will receive it as his inheritance (1:2).Because Christ sustains everything, nothing in creation isindependent from him. All things are held together in a coherentor logical way, sustained and upheld, prevented from dissolvinginto chaos. In him alone and by his word, we find the unifyingprinciple of all life. He is transcendent over all other powers.

After he had provided purification for sins, he sat downat the right hand of the Majesty in heaven.NIV This phrasecapsulizes the author’s two main themes about Christ—hissacrifice and his exaltation. Jesus cleansed his people from theugly stain of sin. Sin destroys our ability to know or approachGod, but when God purifies us from our sins, he cleanses ourrecord. He regards us as though we had never sinned andclothes us in the righteousness of Christ himself (2 Corinthians5:21). Jesus provided purification for sins. This statementreveals the central theme of the letter: Christ’s superior sacrificefor sins. No sacrifice for sin could be greater than the sacrificeoffered by the Creator—his death on a cross. Jesus cleansed the

5 HEBREWS 1:3

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (21)

world from the domination of sin and took the penalty for ourindividual sins by dying in our place. No other penalty needs to bepaid. We can be completely clean because of what Jesus hasdone.

After paying that penalty with his death on the cross, Christ satdown. This signifies that the work was complete and portrays hisexalted position. Earthly priests would stand and keep offeringsacrifices. Their work was never finished. Christ’s sacrifice wasfinal and complete. Quoting from Psalm 110:1, the writer com-bined two Old Testament thoughts expressing God’s greatness(the Majesty in heaven) and Christ’s position (at the right hand).To be seated at the “right hand” of a monarch was to be “secondin command”—the literal “right-hand man.” This gives a pictureof Christ’s power and authority over heaven and earth (see alsoMark 16:19; Romans 8:34). Psalm 110:1 is a crucial text and pro-vides a guiding force in this book. Psalm 110:1 is the only placein the Bible where anyone else besides God is described asenthroned in power. This verse became a main text for the earlychurch to be used as an argument for the deity of Christ. To Jews,the description of Christ at God’s right hand would be more per-suasive as a symbol of Christ’s authority and power than even theResurrection. This is why Jesus spoke these words to Caiaphasjust prior to his death and resurrection: “You will see the Son ofMan sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming onthe clouds of heaven” (Matthew 26:64 NIV).

FORGIVENThe book of Hebrews links God’s saving power with his creativepower. In other words, the power that brought the universe intobeing and that keeps it operating is the very power that removes(provides purification for) our sins. God created us, maintainsus, and can forgive us. No sin is too big for the Ruler of theuniverse to forgive. He can and will forgive us when we come tohim through his Son. Be honest with God; confess your sins tohim. He will forgive and cleanse (see 1 John 1:9).

GOD’S SON COMPARED TO THE ANGELS / 1:4-14Angels, likened to the wind or flames of fire, are servants of Christ.They play a vital role in today’s world as ministering spirits sentto serve those who have accepted God’s salvation. God the Fathercalls Jesus Christ his one and only Son, and he orders angels toworship his Son. If God, who is above all, gives such praise toJesus Christ, how can we praise him any less?

HEBREWS 1:3 6

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (22)

Christ is highly exalted. His throne will last for ever and ever(1:8); the earth and heaven will perish, but he will remain (1:11);he will sit highly honored at God’s right hand with his manyenemies serving as his footstool (1:13).

Since Christ is far superior to all the angels who worship him,we should also give him first place in our lives.

1:4 This shows that God’s Son is far greater than the angels,just as the name God gave him is far greater than theirnames.NLT The writer here begins a series of arguments provingJesus’ superiority over angels. Angels are spiritual beings cre-ated by God and are under his authority (Colossians 1:16).They help carry out God’s work on earth by bringing God’smessages to people (Luke 1:26; Revelation 14:6-12), protect-ing God’s people (Daniel 6:22; Matthew 18:10), offeringencouragement (Genesis 16:7ff.), giving guidance (Exodus14:19), carrying out punishment (2 Samuel 24:16), patrollingthe earth (Zechariah 1:9-14), and fighting the forces of evil(2 Kings 6:16-18; Revelation 20:1-2). Other popular Jewishteachings during New Testament times said that angels broughtpeople’s requests to God and interceded for them. Because ofall these beliefs about angels, the Jews honored them highly.However, Hebrews emphasizes that Christ and his work farsurpass angels and their work. Jesus created the world, sustainsthe world, reveals God’s glory, makes God known, and pro-vides the perfect sacrifice for sins. No angel can accomplishany of these things.

Christ is far greater than the angels because the name Godgave him is far greater than their names. The “name” hereceived is contrasted with the angels’ names. In that time and

7 HEBREWS 1:4

WHAT DID JESUS DO TO OUR SINS?When we confess a sin to God, he forgives and forgets it because ofJesus’ sacrifice. We never need to remember or confess that sin again.When God forgives a sin, it remains forgiven forever.

He took them away. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:17

He forgot them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:12; 10:17

He freed us from sin’s penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:15

He removed sin’s power over us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:26

He offered himself as a sacrifice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:12

He offered himself as an offering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:18

He forgives our sins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:19

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (23)

culture, names captured the essence ofa person (see Genesis 27:36). The“name” Jesus received was “Son.” Thisname identified that his relationshipwith God, his power to forgive peo-ple’s sins, and his ability to make Godknown were far superior to any othercreated being’s. The name “angel”(angelos) simply means “messenger.”And some of the angels who are actu-ally named in Scripture have namesthat are inferior to Christ’s name. “Gabriel” means “Man (orstrength) of God” (see Daniel 8:16; 9:21; Luke 1:19, 26), and“Michael” means “Who is like God?” (see Daniel 10:13, 21;12:1; Jude 1:9; Revelation 12:7). Both names give glory to God.

1:5 For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are mySon; today I have become your Father”? Or again, “I willbe his Father, and he will be my Son”?NIV Beginning here in1:5 and continuing through 1:13, the writer strings togetherseven quotations from the Old Testament: (1) Psalm 2:7,(2) 2 Samuel 7:14, (3) Deuteronomy 32:43 (v. 6), (4) Psalm104:4 (v. 7), (5) Psalm 45:6-7 (vv. 8-9), (6) Psalm 102:25-27(vv. 10-12), (7) Psalm 110:1 (v. 13). All but two are found inthe Greek Psalter, the hymnbook of the synagogue and earlychurch. The writer introduces two quotations from the Psalmsby asking the rhetorical question, For to which of the angels didGod ever say. . . . The answer is, of course, he never said this toany angel.

The first quote, You are my Son; today I have become yourFather, comes from a coronation psalm. Psalm 2:7 was alsoquoted at Jesus’ baptism (Mark 1:11) and transfiguration (Mark9:7), as well as in 2 Peter 1:17. The psalm was originally sungat the crowning of a new king (perhaps originally of David orSolomon). This psalm was used for centuries of Jewish historyas a song of worship. Jewish rabbis attached a deeper meaningto the song—one that looked forward to the coming Messiah.Because the Messiah fulfilled the promises of the Old Testa-ment, the writer understands that these Old Testament versesapply to Christ. The present tense, “you are” (ei su), describesa continuing relationship. Jesus did not become God’s Son butwas always God’s Son. The Father acknowledged him as hisSon in a special way when Jesus was enthroned on high. TheBible calls angels “sons of God” (Job 1:6; 2:1), but not the Sonof God. No angel or person other than Christ could ever

HEBREWS 1:5 8

Of one thing we can besure: Angels never drawattention to themselvesbut ascribe glory to Godand press His messageupon the heavens as adelivering and sustainingword of the highest order.

Billy Graham

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (24)

receive that honor. There are two common interpretations forthe word “today”: Either it could refer to Christ’s glorification(he has been elevated, honored, and seated at the right hand ofGod), or this honor was based on Jesus’ death and resurrection.The first choice is preferable because it continues the thoughtthat Jesus is at the right hand of the Father.

God spoke the words, I will be his Father, and he will bemy Son, to David with respect to Solomon (2 Samuel 7:14;1 Chronicles 17:13). Although Solomon fulfilled these words,Hebrews illustrates that Christ ultimately and completelyfulfilled them. In John 7:42, the religious leaders discussedJesus’ authority, and they alluded to this passage in Samuel,which said that the Messiah must come from David’s family.The titles of “Father” and “Son” reveal a distinction betweenthese two members of the Godhead. They also reveal theunique relationship of the Son to the Father. Although a unityexists in the Trinity, a distinction between the members exists,too. The question implies that no angel can claim such arelationship.

1:6 And again, when God brings his firstborn into the world, hesays, “Let all God’s angels worship him.”NIV Some interpret“again” as the time when God will bring Jesus into the world asecond time, namely, the Second Coming. The intent here,however, is not to paint a picture of the end times but to showChrist’s superiority over the angels in his incarnation. Christ isnow exalted and worshiped by angels. Therefore, the adverb“again” is better understood as marking this as a further quota-tion that extols the preeminence of Christ.

The writer says that God [brought] his firstborn into theworld. In Jewish families the firstborn son held the place ofhighest privilege and responsibility. As firstborn of creation,Jesus surpasses any created being. The Jewish Christians read-ing this message would have understood the reference to God’sfirstborn. He had the title and rights that came with being theSon of God; thus, he was greater than any other created being.Jesus has all of the priority and authority of the firstborn princein a king’s household. (See discussion on “assembly of God’sfirstborn” in 12:23.)

Christ is greater than any created being. While in English theword “firstborn” conveys nothing more than the eldest child, thistitle in Greek (prototokos) signifies that Christ is preeminentover all creation (see Colossians 1:15-16) and therefore worthyof worship. Because of this, the writer had no problem ascribingthe quote “Let all God’s angels worship him” to Christ.

9 HEBREWS 1:6

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (25)

This is a portion of Deuteronomy 32:43, from the “Hymn ofMoses,” found in the Septuagint (the ancient Greek version of theOld Testament). It is not found in the Hebrew version or Englishtranslations based on the Hebrew. All quotes in Hebrews are fromthe Septuagint. The original Old Testament text “him” refers tothe Father. Because only God should be worshiped, this verse isfurther proof that Jesus has a greater position than the angels—heis God. No angel can claim this status either. Rather, “all” of theangels will bow in worship—not a few, not just the underlings,but every one.

GREATER THAN ANGELSThe name Jesus inherited that is superior is “Son of God.” Thisname, given to him by his Father, is greater than the names andtitles of the angels. In many of the early churches false teacherstaught that God could be approached only through angels.Instead of worshiping God directly, followers of these hereticsrevered angels. Hebrews clearly denounces such teaching asfalse. (Some thought of Jesus as the highest angel of God,but Jesus is not a superior angel.) In any case, angels are notto be worshiped (see Colossians 2:18; Revelation 19:1-10).We should not regard any spiritual beings, spiritual guides,intermediaries, or authorities as greater than Christ. Jesus isGod. He alone deserves our worship. He alone should be ourultimate leader.

1:7 In speaking of the angels he says, “He makes his angelswinds, his servants flames of fire.”NIV This quote from Psalm104:4 depicts the angels as “messengers.” Describing angelsas winds and flames of fire continues to show Jesus’ superiorityby contrasting his everlasting glory with the temporality of theangels. Angels are like the wind and fire in that they are noteternal; they change and they are subject to God. “Wind” and“fire” serve as metaphors to illustrate the angels’ status ascreated beings and also their potentially destructive power.Properly utilized, wind and fire provide useful service.

1:8-9 But about the Son he says, “Your throne, O God, will lastfor ever and ever, and righteousness will be the scepter ofyour kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hatedwickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you aboveyour companions by anointing you with the oil of joy.”NIV

These words celebrate the Son’s status. Again, the writer quoteda psalm (45:6-7) that had its origin in the Jewish court. Thispsalm would be sung at a Jewish king’s wedding. In celebratingthe high office of king, the people referred to the king as “a

HEBREWS 1:7 10

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (26)

god.” This title was used out of respectfor the king’s position as God’s repre-sentative. The title that the peopleimperfectly placed on the Jewish kingwas perfectly true of Christ.

That his throne . . . will last for everand ever stresses Jesus’ exaltation.Christ has an eternal throne, and hisreign is characterized by righteousnessbecause he has loved righteousness andhated wickedness. A Jewish kingneeded these attributes and emotions inorder to maintain the throne. But onlyChrist has such perfect love for righ-teousness and hatred for evil. Since athrone symbolizes an enduring kingdom or dynasty, these verseslook forward to a time when God’s enemies will be made intohis footstool (see commentary on 1:13).

PROPHET, PRIEST, AND KINGSo far Hebrews has presented three offices of Jesus: prophet,priest, and king. These offices show his leadership and hissuperiority over all created beings.� Jesus as Prophet—He reveals the exact nature of God

(1:2-3).� Jesus as Priest—He purified us by his atoning work (1:3).� Jesus as King—He reigns over all creation (1:3, 8-9).

Jesus deserves honor as our ultimate authority. We can givehim our highest regard by:�Obeying his Word (2:1).�Persevering in our faith (12:1-6).�Enduring hardship (12:7).�Loving fellow believers (13:1).� Imitating solid Christian leaders (13:7).�Worshiping him with devotion (13:15).

God has set Jesus above his companions in two ways: (1) Jesuswas set above human messengers because only he was the AnointedOne, the greatest mouthpiece of God (see 1:1). No prophet, priest,or king could claim the authority that Jesus possessed. (2) Jesuswas set above angelic messengers. Christ is superior to any otherspiritual being. These qualities allowed Jesus to be anointed withthe oil of joy. The Jews would anoint their kings and their priestswith holy oil. This description, therefore, carries a double mean-ing, revealing that Jesus had been anointed king and priest. Hewas able to be a sacrifice for sins because he was perfect and

11 HEBREWS 1:8-9

The full flood of my life isnot in bodily health, notin external happenings,not in seeing God’s worksucceed, but in the perfectunderstanding of God, andin the communion withhim that Jesus himselfhad. Be rightly related toGod, find your joy there,and out of you will flowrivers of living water.

Oswald Chambers

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (27)

hated all wickedness. God expressed joy in anointing the perfectking and priest.

1:10-12 And: “You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of theearth, and the heavens are the work of Your hands. They willperish, but You remain; and they will all grow old like a gar-ment; like a cloak You will fold them up, and they will bechanged. But You are the same, and Your years will notfail.”NKJV These words of Psalm 102:25-27 were originally usedof God the Father, but are used here to describe God the Son.Jesus is both the Son and Creator. He iseternal and sovereign and thereforeworthy of praise.

Angels were created and can change.Jesus, on the other hand, is the Creatorwho cannot change. Jesus existedbefore creation and time, and God cre-ated the world through him (as seen in1:2). Hebrews celebrates the permanence of Christ by contrastinghim with the temporary nature of the world. The world seemspermanent to us, but it will one day grow old like a garment.Every piece of clothing wears out, grows old, and needs to bechanged or replaced. The world, like the clothing, will be foldedup and changed. Christ, however, will never wear out. His placeis permanent, and he will replace this fading world with a newheaven and new earth (see Hebrews 12:26-28; Revelation 21).

What does it mean that Christ is changeless (You are thesame)? It means that Christ’s character will never change. Hepersistently shows his love to us. He is always fair, just, andmerciful. Be thankful that Christ is changeless, because he willalways help you when you need it and offer forgiveness whenyou fall.

ROLLED UPThat the earth and the heavens will be “folded up” reveals thatthe earth is not permanent or indestructible (a position heldby many Greek and Roman philosophies). God placed Jesus inauthority over all of creation, so we dare not treat any createdobject or earthly resource as more important than he is. Whenwe spend more time on ourselves than on serving Christ, wetreat ourselves (his creation) as being more important than ourCreator. When we regard our finances, rather than our faith inChrist, as the basis for security, we give higher status to anearthly resource than we do to God. Rather than trusting inchangeable and temporary resources, trust in God, whois eternal.

HEBREWS 1:10-12 12

The longest time manhas to live on earth hasno more proportion toeternity than a drop ofdew has to the ocean.

D. L. Moody

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (28)

Because the readers of Hebrews (Jews who had becomeChristians) had experienced the rejection of their fellow Jews,they often felt isolated. Many were tempted to exchange thechangeless Christ for their familiar old faith. The book ofHebrews warns them not to do this. Christ is our only securityin a changing world. If we trust him, we are absolutely securebecause we stand on the firmest foundation in the universe. Thefamous hymn “My Hope Is Built on Nothing Less,” written byEdward Mote, captures this truth: “On Christ, the solid Rock,I stand—all other ground is sinking sand.”

1:13 But to which of the angels has He ever said: “Sit at My righthand, till I make Your enemies Your footstool”?NKJV Hebrewscontinues to show how the high position of Christ makes himsuperior to the angels. Here we see the same rhetorical style asin 1:5. Although we don’t know the original occasion of thisstatement (quoted from Psalm 110:1), popular teaching in Jesus’day held that the psalm was messianic. Jesus will triumph overall his enemies because he is instructed to sit at My [God’s] righthand. This victory belongs to Christ and not to any created being.The greatest archangels stand before God (Luke 1:19; Revelation8:2), but none are allowed to sit, for sitting next to God indicatesequality.

God promised to make Jesus’ enemies a footstool—they areunder his feet. This is a picture showing Christ as completely vic-torious over his enemies. Does God place Jesus’ enemies underJesus’ feet because Jesus is not capable of doing it himself? No.This action shows that God approved ofJesus’ work. The two work together fora common purpose. Jesus’ honor cannotbe superseded, and no angel comesclose to this honor. The angels, as seenin 1:14, serve God and Jesus.

1:14 But angels are only servants. Theyare spirits sent from God to care forthose who will receive salvation.NLT

Christ possesses the right to sit at God’sright hand (1:13), while the angels arehis servants. Jesus is much greater thanthe angels, who serve him. The angels are ministering spirits whoare sent from God to care for those who will receive salvation.The angels’ purpose is to serve; Christ’s purpose is to reign.Angels are higher than people in creation’s hierarchy (see Psalm8:4), being created first and with higher function. But God hasreversed the order and instructed the angels to serve his people.

13 HEBREWS 1:14

The angels are the dis-pensers and adminis-trators of the divinebeneficence toward us;they regard our safety,undertake our defense,direct our ways, andexercise a constantsolicitude that no evilbefall us. John Calvin

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (29)

The fact that angels serve us should encourage us when we feelunloved or forgotten. Because God loves us, he dispatches hisangels to help us.

Salvation has both present and future meaning. Hebrewsstresses the role of salvation in the future sense when referringto “those who will receive salvation.” Salvation extends beyondthe act at the cross or at our conversion. “Salvation” as used heredescribes what will happen when salvation culminates in eternallife in the new heaven and new earth. Jesus’ victory over all hisenemies will be shared by the coheirs, namely those who puttheir faith in Jesus and his work and follow him (Romans 13:11;1 Peter 1:5).

HEBREWS 1:14 14

CHRIST AND THE ANGELSHebrews quotes from the Old Testament repeatedly to demonstrateChrist’s greatness in comparison to the angels.This audience of first-century Jewish Christians had developed an unbalanced belief in angels.Christ’s lordship is affirmed without showing disrespect to God’s valuedangelic messengers.

Hebrews . . Old Testament. . . How Christ is superior to angels

1:5-6. . . . . Psalm 2:7 . . . . . . Christ is called “Son” of God, a title nevergiven to an angel

1:7, 14 . . . Psalm 104:4 . . . . Angels are important but are still onlyservants under God

1:8-9. . . . . Psalm 45:6 . . . . . Christ’s kingdom is forever

1:10 . . . . . Psalm 102:25 . . . Christ is the Creator of the world

1:13 . . . . . Psalm 110:1 . . . . Christ is given unique honor by God

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (30)

BIBLIOGRAPHYBlanchard, John. Gathered Gold. Hertfordshire, England: Evangelical Press,

1984.

———. More Gathered Gold. Hertfordshire, England: Evangelical Press, 1986.

Bruce, F. F. The Epistle to the Hebrews in The New International Commentaryon the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964.

Guthrie, Donald. Hebrews in the Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. GrandRapids: Eerdmans, 1988.

Hagner, Donald A. Hebrews in the New International Biblical CommentarySeries. New Testament edited by W. Ward Gasque. Peabody, Mass.:Hendrickson Publishers, 1990.

Lane, William L. Hebrews 1-8 in Word Biblical Commentary. Waco, Tex.: Word,1991.

———. Hebrews 9-13 in Word Biblical Commentary. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1991.

Morris, Leon. “Hebrews.” In The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Vol. 12. Editedby Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981.

Turner, George Allen. The New and Living Way. Minneapolis: BethanyFellowship, 1975.

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (31)

INDEXAbel, 178–179, 223–224

application for today, 179Chart: A Better Word, 224

Abrahamand Melchizedek, 91–98faith of, 182–191God’s promise to, xx–xxi, 84–89application for today, 87, 183, 185,

190Chart: Abraham in the New

Testament, 86Chart: Twelve Tests of Abraham,

189Angels

description of, 7, 10, 13, 19, 20,27–28, 230–231

Jesus is greater than, 6–14Chart: Christ and the Angels, 14

Apollosas possible author, xiv

Apostasyauthor warns against, 164–168

Ark of the Covenantin the tabernacle, 127–130Chart: Key Tabernacle Pieces, 126

Atonementwhat it means, 23–24

Barak, 196–197Barnabas

as possible author, xivBelief

what it means, 49–50Believers (see Christians)Bible (see Word of God)Blood

significance of, 131–132, 135–144,150–151, 165–167, 237–238

application for today, 142Chart: A Better Word, 224

Cain, 178–179Christians

as brothers and sisters of Christ,24–25

as God’s children, 25, 222–223as God’s house, 36–37as partners of Christ, 44citizenship in heaven, 186–188,

222–223, 238–239need to grow in faith and

understanding, 71–81have access to God’s throne,

61–62, 159–160show love for God by caring for one

another, 82–83, 229–230application for today, 25, 75, 76, 81,

104, 112, 115, 152, 173, 187, 239Chart: Christian Maturity, 73Chart: Don’t Forget to Do Good, 241Chart: Obedience Versus

Sacrifices, 151Chart: The Choices of Maturity, 74Chart: What Does God Have in

Mind for Us?, 188Church

attendance is important forbelievers, 161–163

honor the leaders, 234–235, 242application for today, 163, 164, 235

Contentmentapplication for today, 234

Courageapplication for today, 37, 93

CovenantJesus guarantees a better one,

104–105, 115–121old and new covenants, 1, 121–123,

125, 139–142, 147–157, 201,220–224, 237–238

application for today, 105, 117, 118,119, 123

Chart: The Old and NewCovenants, 122

(see also Promise)Curtain

in the tabernacle, 88–89, 127–129David, 196–197

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (32)

DeathJesus frees us from the fear of, 27application for today, 27

Disciplineof God on believers, 208–214application for today, 209

Encouragementbelievers should encourage one

another, 42–44, 161–163,218–219

Chart: Encourage One Another, 162Endurance

as a theme of Hebrews, xxiias part of Christian life, 203–205,

214–215application for today, 205, 215

Enoch, 179–180Esau, 191, 219–220Faith

as a theme of Hebrews, xxi–xxiido not turn away from, 15–17,

31–32, 38–42, 59–60, 170–172,236–237

heroes of, 175–201what it is, 175–178, 180–181application for today, 12, 16, 19, 32,

37, 46, 48, 49, 176, 181, 198,201, 237

Forgivenessof God, 156–157through Jesus Christ, 5–6application for today, 6, 136, 157

Gideon, 196–197Glory

give glory to Jesus, 33–35application for today, 35

Goda consuming fire, 227does not overlook hard work, 82–83how he spoke to his people, 1–3keeps his promises, 87–89, 233–244omniscience of, 57–58seen through his Son, 4–5wrath of, 40–41, 165–168application for today, 41, 58, 104,

165, 167, 221Guilt

application for today, 134Heart

do not let hearts becomeunbelieving, 41–42, 44–45

examples of hard hearts, 38–42God will write his laws on,

119–121, 156–157

application for today, 38, 40, 42Heaven

God preparing a home forbelievers, 186–188, 221–223,238–239

application for today, 190, 195, 239Hebrew People

leaving Egypt, 195–196rebellion in the wilderness, 38–41, 45

Hebrews, Book ofdestination of the letter, xvii–xviiioccasion and purpose of theletter, xviii–xixpossible authors of the letter, xii–xv,to whom the letter was written,

xi–xii, xvi–xvii, 2–3when it was written, xv–xvi

High PriestJesus is the perfect, xx, 23, 28,

59–69, 98–109, 111–116,135–146, 159

Melchizedek was, 66–69, 91–98,101

what Israel’s high priests did, 59–60,62–65, 112–116, 131–132, 144

application for today, 99Chart: Jesus, Our High Priest, 29

HolyJesus makes believers holy, 23–25,

31, 154–155, 237–238Holy Place

in the tabernacle, 125–127Holy Spirit

God speaks through, 38lives in believers, 77–80testifies to salvation, 18–19application for today, 112

Honorsapplication for today, 65

Hopemeaning of, 83–89, 103–104, 161application for today, 84, 161

Hospitality, 230–231application for today, 231

Human/Humanitywhy Jesus had to become human,

26–30Chart: Lessons from Christ’s

Humanity, 26Intercession

Jesus intercedes on behalf ofbelievers, 106–107

application for today, 107Isaac, 184, 188–191

HEBREWS 252

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (33)

Jacob, 184, 191–192Jephthah, 196–197Jericho, 196Jesus Christ

as Creator and Sustainer, 3–4, 5,12

as God himself, 4–5as God’s Son, 1–6, 8–10as High Priest, xx, 23, 28, 59–69,

88–89, 98–109, 111–116as Messiah, 1as perfect sacrifice, xx, 5–6, 22,

28–30greater than the angels, 6–14,

19–22intercedes on behalf of believers,

106–107seated at the right hand of God,

5–6, 22, 111–112, 143–144,205–207

second coming of, 145–146,171–172

suffered, 22–23, 205–208,237–238superiority of, xix, 1–14, 223–224,

235–236application for today, 3, 4, 10, 11,

12, 66, 89, 94, 99, 102, 106, 107,112, 160, 172, 207

Chart: Christ and the Angels, 14Chart: How Christ Is Better, 114Chart: How Does Moses Compare

to Jesus?, 34Chart: Lessons from Christ’s

Humanity, 26Chart: What Did Jesus Do to Our

Sins?, 7Joseph, 191–192Judgment, 144–145, 165–168

application for today, 145, 165Law

a shadow of what was to come,147–150

application for today, 148Leaders/Leadership, 234–235, 242

application for today, 235Love

believers must love one another,229–230

Lukeas possible author, xiv

Marriagebelievers must be faithful in, 232application for today, 233

Maturityas a theme of Hebrews, xxiChristians must strive for, 71–81application for today, 72, 75, 76Chart: Christian Maturity, 73Chart: The Choices of Maturity, 74

Melchizedekand Abraham, 91–98as a type of Christ, 66–69, 88–89,

98–109Money

believers must not love, 233application for today, 234

Moseshfaith of, 192–196Jesus greater than, 31–37what he did, 141–142application for today, 192, 193, 194Chart: How Does Moses Compare

to Jesus?, 34Most Holy Place

in the tabernacle, 88–89, 127–133,135–136

Mount Sinai, 220–222Mount Zion, 220–222Name

meaning of, 7–8, 10Noah, 181–182

application for today, 182Obedience

of Jesus, 151–152application for today, 154Chart: Obedience versus

Sacrifices, 151Offerings (see Sacrifices)Old Testament

God spoke through, 1–2references to Jesus, 7–13application for today, 36Chart: Christ and the Angels, 14

Passover, 195Patience

illustrated by Abraham, 85application for today, 87Chart: Bible “Waiters,” 146

Paulas possible author, xiii–xiv

Peacepursue it with all people, 216–217application for today, 217Chart: Peace with All People?, 216

Persecutionof believers, xxii, 168–173,

199–200, 238–239

253 HEBREWS

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (34)

application for today, 168, 170Chart: Called to Suffer, 169

Perseverance (see Endurance)Praise

believers offer sacrifice of, 239–241application for today, 241Chart: Twenty–five Reasons for

Praising God, 240Prayer

believers can approach Godthrough, 61–62

importance of, 243–244application for today, 62, 243

Priesthood/Priestssalvation cannot be attained

through, 98–109, 133–134what Israel’s priests did, 100–101,

130–131, 155application for today, 99, 106

Prison/Prisoners, 231application for today, 232

Problems (see Trials)Promise

as a theme of Hebrews, xx–xxiGod keeps his, 84–89

application for today, 170Promised Land

Hebrew people did not enter at first,38–41, 44–46

Prophetsspoke God’s words, 1–2

Rahab, 196Rebellion

do not rebel against God, 41–44of Hebrew people, 38–41, 44–46

Rejectiondanger for those who reject the

gospel, 165–168, 224–225Rest

the rest for God’s people, 47–55application for today, 53, 54

Resurrectionimportance to Christian faith,

101–102, 198–199Sabbath Rest

what it means, 52–53Sacrifices

as a theme of Hebrews, xxhow Jesus’ sacrifice took away sin,

5–6, 22, 28–30, 134–146,150–157

of praise, 239–241what the Hebrews gave as

sacrifices (offerings), 63, 135–137

why they are no longer needed, 157application for today, 155Chart: Obedience versus

Sacrifices, 151Chart: The Offerings, 153Salvationmeaning of, 13–14, 77–80through Jesus, 22–23, 68–69,

154–155, 158–159teachings about, 75–77why believers must not become

indifferent to, 16–19application for today, 52, 69, 80, 89,

108, 138Samson, 196–197Samuel, 196–197Sanctuary, 114–115

(see also Most Holy Place)Service/Serving

for God is not wasted, 82–84Sexual Immorality

must not exist among believers,219–220, 232

Sharing, 241Chart: Don’t Forget to Do Good, 241

Sinis deceitful, 42–44Jesus died for, 5–6, 22–24, 26–30why a sacrifice was required,

63–64, 131–133, 150–157application for today, 132, 134Chart: How Does Sin Deceive Us?, 43Chart: What Did Jesus Do to Our

Sins?, 7Stress

application for today, 207Submission

of Jesus, 67–68application for today, 67, 141, 211

Sufferingof believers, 168–173, 199–200,

238–239of Jesus, 22–23, 29–30, 68–69,

144–146application for today, 24, 30, 168,

199Chart: Called to Suffer, 169Chart: Theology of Trials in the New

Testament, 212–213Superiority of Christ

as a theme of Hebrews, xix, 1–14,33–37, 65–66, 108–109,115–116

application for today, 3, 117

HEBREWS 254

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (35)

Tabernaclebuilt by Moses, 114–115description of, 125–133Art, 128Chart: Key Tabernacle Pieces, 126

Teachingneed maturity for, 71–81application for today, 72

Temple Art, 149Temptation

Jesus sympathizes with us, 60–61Testing

what it means, 29–30Thankfulness, 226

application for today, 227Chart: Five Ways We Can Be

Thankful, 226Timothy, 245–246

Tithe/TithingAbraham to Melchizedek, 91–92,

94–98according to God’s law, 96Chart: Giving a Tenth, 95

TrialsChart: Theology of Trials in the New

Testament, 212–213(see also Suffering)

WaitingChart: Bible “Waiters,” 146

Wills, 140application for today, 140

Word of Godwhat it does, 55–58application for today, 57Chart: The Word of God, 56

255 HEBREWS


Life Application Bible Commentary - Tyndale House· 2009-03-24· The Life Application Bible Commentary series provides verse-by-verse explanation, background, and application for

S.D.A. Bible Commentary Vol. 1

think you know these foundational figures?€¦· Old Testament, The NIV Application Commentary: Genesis and The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament. Selected Propositions

SDA Bible Commentary Vol 7A

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary on the Bible€¦· Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary on the Bible Matthew Henry Chapter 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 bc s.d.a. bible commentary vol

Life Application Bible Commentary: Revelation - …files.tyndale.com/thpdata/FirstChapters/978-0-8423-2874-6.pdf· Life Application Bible Commentary Revelation.indd i 2/23/2009 2:18:59

Gospel of John Bible Commentary

1 bc s.d.a. bible commentary vol

Douay Rheims Bible (Ecclesiastes) with Haydock Commentary

S.D.A. Bible Commentary Vol. 3

LAMENTATIONS 2 - Free Bible Commentary

Chuck Missler - Bible Commentary - Supplemental Notes - Philippians

Bible Commentary - files.tyndale.com· The Life Application Bible Commentary series provides verse-by-verse explanation, background, and application for every verse in the New Testament

MATEO 26 - Free Bible Commentary

Bible Commentary

Bible Prophecy Commentary - Destiny Bible College

MATEO 24 - Free Bible Commentary

MATEO 27 - Free Bible Commentary

Believers Church Bible Commentary - Herald Press

Life Application Bible Commentary: James - Tyndale.comfiles.tyndale.com/thpdata/FirstChapters/978-0-8423-2891-3.pdf· Life Application Bible Commentary: James ... and sermon ideas

Hypertext and Commentary Writing: the Postmodern Bible ...· Hypertext and Commentary Writing: the Postmodern Bible Commentary project by Tim Bulkeley ... (following George Landow

S.D.A. Bible Commentary Vol. 7

EBI Church Planting Training Centers 102c Teaching the Old …€¦· Read Isaiah 1-39 in the Life Application Bible, Bible Commentary, and Bible Dictionary. Answer the questions

Bible Commentary to Malachi by John Schultz

Life Application Bible Commentary: James - Tyndale House· · 2009-05-26The Life Application Bible Commentary series provides verse-by-verse explanation, background, and application

1 Bible Commentary

6 bc s.d.a. bible commentary vol

GLOSSAIRE - Free Bible Commentary

Logos Bible Software v4 comparison chart bible software v4 comparison chart.pdf· Holman Concise Bible Commentary Holman New Testament Commentary (12 Vols International Theological

King James Commentary Bible

THE NEW COLLEGEVILLE BIBLE COMMENTARY

2 bc s.d.a. bible commentary vol

Believer's Bible Commentary - Sastra Hidup

Commentary on Hebrews - Bible Study: Bible Study Guides

Life Application Bible Commentary: Hebrews - · PDF fileThe content is highlighted so that particular verses and ... (for example, Visions 2.3.2; ... Life Application Bible Commentary: - [PDF Document] (2024)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Velia Krajcik

Last Updated:

Views: 5631

Rating: 4.3 / 5 (74 voted)

Reviews: 89% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Velia Krajcik

Birthday: 1996-07-27

Address: 520 Balistreri Mount, South Armand, OR 60528

Phone: +466880739437

Job: Future Retail Associate

Hobby: Polo, Scouting, Worldbuilding, Cosplaying, Photography, Rowing, Nordic skating

Introduction: My name is Velia Krajcik, I am a handsome, clean, lucky, gleaming, magnificent, proud, glorious person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.